History of the Conflict

History of the Conflict 

Islam in South Asia


Islamic Invasion and Imperialism (1200s – 1400s)

Antagonism against Hindus within their own native lands has a long and bloody history reaching back more than 700 years. Islam of course did not exist in the Indian subcontinent untill Muhammad bin Qasim’s Arab army attacked Sindh (present day Pakistan) in 711. After repeated invasions, Hindus lost present day Afghanistan to Muslims in 987. The major Islamic invasion which took place in the early 1200s established the Mughal Empire and ruled the Indian subcontinent for two centuries, taking the lives of 80 Million indigenous Hindus and enslaving countless more. The native Hindu population eventually regained much of their lands under the direction of such heroes as Shivaji Bhosale who established the Hindu Maratha Empire. But due to the weakening effect of warding off Islamic Imperialism, the subcontinent eventually fell to British Colonialism in the Mid 1800s.

Partitioning of India (1947)

1947 Partition of the Indian Subcontinent into Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan

Once again under Hindu leadership the British were repelled and forced to return the Subcontinent to the indigenous population. However, remnants of the previous Islamic Imperium resurged under many different Islamist parties such as the All India Muslim League and demanded the subcontinent be divided along Muslim-Hindu lines. This lead to the 1947 Partition of India which divided the subcontinent into the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.  The Dominion of Pakistan was divided by the land plain of North India into East and West Pakistan.  West Pakistan was ideologically, economically, socially and militarily the much great power. They spoke Urdu and were very much more fundamentally Islamic than the Bengali speaking Muslims of East Pakistan.  East Pakistan also had a higher and better integrated Hindu population which gave East Pakistan better relationships with India. East and West Pakistan were later divided by the 1971 Liberation War into the modern day Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Bangladesh were native Hindus suffer discrimination, violence, forced conversion and murder under Islamic Influences today.

Indo-Pak War of 1947

This is also called the First Kashmir War. The war started in October 1947 when it was feared by the Pakistani government that the state of Kashmir and Jammu might accede to India following a Muslim revolution in the Poonch and Mirpur area allegedly backed by Pakistan. Tribal forces from Pakistan attacked and occupied the Kashmir, resulting in the head of the state signing the Agreement to the accession of Kashmir to India. The United Nations was invited by India to mediate the quarrel resulting in the UN Security Council passing Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948. The war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control dividing Kashmir into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and western areas) and India (southern, central and northeastern areas).

Indo-Pak War of 1965

Known as the Second Kashmir War, the war began following Pakistan’s Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against India. India retaliated by launching an attack on Pakistan. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and was witness to the largest tank battle in military history since World War II. The outcome of this war was a strategic stalemate with some small tactical victories for both sides. The war concluded after diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and USA and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.

Bangladesh Liberation War (1971)

The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 was a war of independence in South Asia which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and established the sovereign nation of Bangladesh. The war pitted East Pakistan and India against West Pakistan, and lasted over a duration of nine months. One of the most violent wars of the 20th century, it witnessed large-scale atrocities, the exodus of 10 million refugees and the displacement of 30 million people.

The minorities of Bangladesh, especially the Hindus, were specific targets of the Pakistani army. There was widespread killing of Hindu males, and rapes of women. Documented incidents in which Hindus were massacred in large numbers include the Chuknagar massacre, the Jathibhanga massacre, and the Shankharipara massacre. More than 60% of the Bengali refugees who fled to India were Hindus. It is not exactly known what percentage of the people killed by the Pakistan army were Hindus, but it is safe to say it was disproportionately high. TIME magazine reported that “The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Muslim military’s hatred.” This widespread violence against Hindus was motivated by a policy to purge East Pakistan of what was seen as Hindu and Indian influences. The West Pakistani rulers identified the Bengali culture with Hindu and Indian culture, and thought that the eradication of Hindus would remove such influences from the majority Muslims in East Pakistan. Buddhist temples and Buddhist monks were also attacked through the course of the year.


Indo-Pak War of 1971 

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was sparked by the Bangladesh Liberation war; Indian, Bangladeshi and international sources consider the beginning of the war to be Operation Chengiz Khan, Pakistan’s December, 3rd 1971 preemptive strike on 11 Indian airbases. After the Pakistan army conducted a widespread genocide against the Bengali population, aimed in particular at the minority Hindu population, approximately 10 million people fled Bangladesh and took refuge in the neighboring Indian states. The Bangladesh-India border was opened to allow refugees safe shelter in India. The governments of many Indian states established refugee camps along the border. The resulting flood of impoverished Bengali refugees placed an intolerable strain on India’s already overburdened economy. The Indian government repeatedly appealed to the international community, but failing to elicit any response, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on March, 27th 1971 expressed full support of her government for the independence struggle of the people of Bangladesh. The Indian leadership under Prime Minister Gandhi quickly decided that it was more effective to end the genocide by taking armed action against Pakistan than to simply give refuge to those who made it across to refugee camps.

By November, war seemed inevitable. Throughout November, thousands of people led by Pakistani politicians marched in Lahore and across Pakistan, calling for Pakistan to Crush India. India responded by starting a massive buildup of Indian forces on the border with Bangladesh. On 23 November, President Yahya Khan declared a state of emergency in all of Pakistan and told his people to prepare for war. On the evening of 3 December Sunday, at about 5:40 pm, the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) launched a preemptive strike on eleven airfields in north-western India, including Agra which was 300 miles (480 km) from the border. The strikes lasted just 13 days, making the war one of the shortest in history. The Instrument of Surrender of Pakistani forces stationed in East Pakistan was signed at Ramna Race Course in Dhaka at on 16 December 1971, by Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, General Officer Commanding-in-chief of Eastern Command of the Indian Army and Lieutenant General A. A. K. Niazi, Commander of Pakistani forces in East Pakistan. India took approximately 90,000 prisoners of war, including Pakistani soldiers and their East Pakistani civilian supporters.


Since 1971, 49 Million Hindus Have Gone “Missing” In Bangladesh

Dr. Sachi Ghosh Dastidar’s book  Empire’s Last Casualty: Indian Subcontinent’s Vanishing Hindu and Other Minorities is a study of effects of religious communalism on a pluralistic, tolerant, multi-religious society. It focuses on the loss of indigenous, Hindu populations from the land of their ancestors; and on changes brought about since India was partitioned in 1947, the effects on Hindu and non-Muslim (Buddhist and Christian) minorities, on pluralism and on indigenous cultures. Following the 1971 war of independence against West Pakistan, Bangladesh gained independence, creating the second largest Muslim-majority nation. That war was concurrently an anti-Hindu and an anti-Bengali genocide by Pakistan’s army and its Bengali and Urdu speaking Islamist allies. The book documents the decade-wise “missing” Hindus from the Bangladesh Census: over 49 million; larger than 163 of 189 nations listed in the World Bank’s April 2003 World Development indicators database-and over 3.1 million Hindus lost their lives through the process of Islamization.

Kashmir Exodus 1990

During this time of partition, Kashmir was a Hindu Kingdom with some aspiration of self rule outside of Socialist India or Islamic Pakistan.  However, due to violent attacks by Pakistani armed forces and Pashtun tribesmen, for its own safety, Kashmir eventually decided to legally accede to India in 1947. Pakistan, however, continues to occupy about 35% of the region, India governs approximately half, and China occupies the remainder. Islamic aggression and attacks on the part of Pakistan began to deplete the Hindu population of Kashmir as many Hindus were either killed or fled the region.  Yet the largest exodus of Hindus from their native lands in Kashmir happened only some 25 years ago when Pakistani sponsored Islamic militants drove out some 300,000 Hindus from their homes and villages, cleansing the valley of more than 95% of its Hindu inhabitants. This massive displacement was accompanied by random killings, tortures and rapes on the part of the Islamic aggressors.

25 years later, Kashmiri Hindus have not yet been recognized as Internally Displaced Persons by the Indian government, or safely rehabilitated back to their homes in the Kashmir Valley. Thousands still live in camps in Jammu and New Delhi, suffer from ongoing mental and emotional trauma, and are economically and politically marginalized. Hindus who dared to remain in Kashmir face a deteriorating security situation as Pakistan-supported terrorist violence increases. Sectarian clashes between the native Hindus and
Imperialist Muslims has led to at least two deaths and the destruction of over 100 Hindu-owned businesses. The State Government of Kashmir has failed to enact long pending legislation in 2013 to protect and preserve Hindu temples and shrines in Kashmir, despite the ongoing encroachments and illegal sales of temple properties in the State. Over 100 temples have been illegally occupied since 1989.

The Kargil War (1999)

The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along theLine of Control (LOC). The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan’s Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid. The Indian Army, later on supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops and militants. With international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC.

Islamic Pakistan Today

Pakistan Is An Islamic State

JFH visits Pakistani Hindu refugee camps in Delhi – distributes supplies

According to the 2nd article of the Pakistani constitution, Islam is the state religion [1], further provisions state that the President of Pakistan must be a Muslim [2], and so the theocratic bias in favor of Islam and Muslims is obvious. The preamble to the constitution is rather deceptive when it states:

“Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah; Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise their religions and develop their cultures… Pakistan would be a democratic State based on Islamic principles of social justice ” [3] 

The preamble states that Pakistan will give minorities (read non-Muslims) “adequate” provisions to practice their religion, however the preamble also makes it clear that these “adequate provisions” will be dictated by the “Islamic principles of social justice”.  The very fact that only a Muslim can become the President of Pakistan  is a good indicator to what is meant by “Islamic social justice.”

Pakistan School Textbooks Preach Hatred For Hindus

The Pakistani government also views it as “Islamic social justice” to print state text books which declare that non-Muslims are the “enemies of Islam” and paints Hindus especially in a negative light, suggesting Hindus are “cruel”, “unjust” and antithetical to “brotherhood” [5]”

”[In Pakistan state sponsored textbooks] Hindus are repeatedly described as extremists and eternal enemies of Islam whose culture and society is based on injustice and cruelty, while Islam delivers a message of peace and brotherhood, concepts portrayed as alien to the Hindu.” [5]

Ahmadis Officially Discriminated Against On Passports

Ahmadis are an Islamic sect which formed in South Asia in the late 1800’s.  They follow the teachings of an Islamic reformer named Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.  Ahmadi’s differ from mainstream Islam in that they believe that Islam will be spread throughout the world via peaceful means, not war. Because of their reformist mentality, Ahmadis are systematically and officially discriminated against in Islamic Pakistan.  For example, In applying for a passport or national ID card, all Pakistanis must sign an oath rejecting Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (founder of Ahmadi Islam) and affirm that Ahmadis are non-Muslim [7]; again, this is Pakistan’s definition of “Islamic social justice”.

Non-Muslims Victims Of “Anti-Blasphemy” Laws

Futher still, Christians, Ahmadi’s and Hindus are often the victims of Pakistan’s “anti-Blasphemy” laws which make it a state crime to disparage the prophet Muhammad or desecrate a Quran.  It should not be surprising that it has been found that non-Muslims such as Hindus, Christians and Ahmadi’s are disproportionately victimized under these so-called “anti-blasphemy” laws. [9] In 2014, Pakistan sentenced a Christian to death under the these blasphemy laws, the state also sentenced to death a British national who was believed to be mentally ill. [8]

Hindu Girls Kidnapped, Raped and Forcibly Converted

Pak Hindus demonstrate at U.N. – “Release Our Daughters From Islamic Terrorists”

According to a report by the Movement for Solidarity and Peace in Pakistan, over 1000 non-Muslim girls are kidnapped, raped and forcibly converted to Islam in Pakistan every year, some of these girls are as young as 12.  The state courts in Pakistan rarely if ever return these kidnap victims to their families.  Young Hindu and Christian girls who are found to have been kidnapped are usually forced to stay with their kidnapper during the duration of the trial.  If these young girls (who are under the custody of their kidnappers) state they left and converted to Islam willingly, the Islamic court orders that the girl’s new family arrangement is legal.  These young girls then often become the victims of rape and prostitution. [6] [10]

Upon production in the courts or before the magistrate, the victim girl is asked to testify whether she converted and married of her own free will or if she was abducted. In most cases, the girl remains in custody of the abductor while judicial proceedings are carried out. Upon the girl’s pronouncement that she willfully converted and consented to the marriage, the case is settled without relief for the family. Once in the custody of the abductor, the victim girl may be subjected to sexual violence, rape, forced prostitution, human trafficking and sale, or other domestic abuse. [6]

USA Hindus protest murder of Pakistani Hindu teen at U.N.

Pakistan Muslims Attack And Destroy Hindu Temples
Hindus Unable To Cremate Their Dead 

Many of Pakistan’s Hindu temples were destroyed long ago, however the few that remain are under constant threat of desecration and arson by Pakistani Muslims; since 2012 several Hindu temples and shrines have been either destroyed or desecrated. [11] In 2012 the 100 year old  Shri Rama Pir Mandir in Karachi Pakistan was arbitrarily bulldozed by a land developer, the questionably legal demolition also left many Hindu families homeless. [12] Hindus in Pakistan also find it very hard to cremate their dead (per Hindu tradition) because in many areas of Pakistan the crematoriums once owned by Hindus were taken over by the government and auctioned off.  This condition of the Islamic state takeover and dismantling of Hindu crematoriums has forced several Hindus to bury their dead in the ground per Islamic tradition [4]. The forced burial of Hindus in Islamic cemeteries has increased tensions between the two communities; in 2013 at the behest of an Islamic cleric, a crowd of Muslims dug up a Hindu grave and dragged the body through the streets in the town of Pangrio [13].

Video Testimonials Confirm Reports

JFH members from the United States visited the Pakistani Hindu refugee camps located in Majnu ka Tila, outside Delhi. The refugee camp is home to more than 500 people (100 + families). Because these Hindu refugees were forced to flee Islamic Pakistan, they are not citizens of India and so languish in makeshift camps with no electricity, no running water and no ability to work; they are cold and hungry. JFH took video testimonials from some of the camp members about why they fled from Islamic Pakistan. Sona Das has been living in the Pakistani Hindu refugee camp in Delhi since 2011. Sona testifies in the below video record that Pakistani Muslims loot Hindu homes, terrorize Hindus, kill Hindus in their homes and rape Hindu girls. They attack and destroy temples he states.  The Pakistani government does not listen to Hindu complaints he affirms.

Sukhnandan is another Pakistani refugee living in the Delhi caps. According to him schools in Pakistan teach the Islamic religion and so Hindu parents have to keep their children at home.  The Islamic state does not allow Hindus to cremate their dead per Hindu tradition but forces them to bury their children in the ground. Young Hindu girls are kidnapped by Muslim men and gang raped. He says Hindu daughters are not safe in Pakistan. Hindus are shot, burned and beaten and the government does nothing to help them. “We would rather die than go back to Pakistan” he states.


Pakistan is an Islamic state, and like in all Islamic states, non-Muslims do not find any sort of justice within its borders.  So horrendous are the conditions for Hindus living in Pakistan that they would prefer to flee to a nation where they have no citizenship, where they cannot work, and where they languish in camps with no electricity, no water, no food, no education and very little hope.  The Hindus of Pakistan have  been driven to these camps due to the Islamic institutions of rape, torture, theft, murder and social discrimination.  Hindus, India and the world must see and hear the plight of these people and come to their aid.  The world must also put a spotlight on the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and sanction this nation for its blatantly discriminatory policies.  Finally, the world must realize that the Pakistani Hindu refugees are a testament to the reality of every Islamic state on earth, their plight is not unique but is similar to the conditions felt by non-Muslims living in Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran and every other Islamic Republic on the globe.  There is a common denominator in each of these tyrannies where non-Muslims live as less than 2nd class citizens… that common denominator is Islam.

Islamic Bangladesh Today

Bangladesh Is An Islamic State

Bengali Hindus protest at UN on Veterans Day


The nation of Bangladesh (BD) is a Muslim majority state which borders India to the Northeast, Islam is the state religion of Bangladesh.  The Bangladeshi government has not only routinely failed to protect non-Muslim and secularists citizen in Bangladesh but also promotes Islamic nationalism. While Bangladesh claims to be a “secular democracy”, according to the Bangladesh constitution, Islam is the state religion, referencing both “Allah” and the “Koran”, and it is the state’s objective to: “consolidate, preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic solidarity.”  – Hindu American Foundation Report

[VIDEO] JFH join Bangladeshi Hindu demonstration at White House

While the minority Hindus of Bangladesh have been experiencing intense and deadly persecution for decades, the intensity of violent crimes against non-Muslims and secularists has escalated recently with the influx of ISIS elements into the state. In the past months, several Hindus and other non-Muslims have been either murdered, injured or humiliated by Muslim citizens with Islamist motives, and many of these crimes have been claimed by ISIS. Here are some examples of recent attacks on minorities in Bangladesh:

Hindu Priest Slaughtered In Bangladesh, ISIS claims responsibility – A 70-year-old Hindu priest was hacked to death in Bangladesh by three suspected Islamic State jihadists who nearly severed his head, the second priest from the community to be killed this year in the Muslim-majority nation which has seen a string of brutal attacks by Islamists on minorities and secular activists. – DNA INDIA

Hindu Tailor hacked to death in Bangladesh; ISIS claims responsibility – Police in Bangladesh say they have detained three people in relation to the killing of a Hindu tailor, who was hacked to death in the central Bangladeshi district of Tangail. Those detained for questioning include two party members, one from the opposition BNP party and a local leader of the Jamaat e Islami Islamist. – CNN

Hindu teacher in Bangladesh beaten up, made to do sit-ups by holding ears for ‘insulting’ Islam – – Dhaka: In yet another incident of mob justice against minorities in Bangladesh, a Hindu headmaster of a school in Narayanganj was on Friday punished by locals for allegedly insulting Islam. Shyamal was being punished and made to do sit-ups holding ears, said that the punishment was the only way to save the latter from the mob. – Zee News

Bangladesh killings: Hindu teacher attacked at home – A Hindu college teacher in Bangladesh has been attacked on his doorstep by three men armed with knives, according to local police. He is critically ill in hospital. The assault, in the town of Madaripur, is the latest in a series of recent attacks on religious minorities, secular writers and academics. – BBC

Christian hacked to death in latest Bangladesh attack, claimed by ISIS – Dhaka (AFP) – A Christian was hacked to death after Sunday prayers near a church in northwest Bangladesh in an attack — the latest in a series on religious minorities — claimed by the Islamic State (IS) group. – Yahoo

Protest At United Nations For Bangladesh Hindus – 26 Jun 2016 [Video]

Elderly Buddhist monk HACKED to death amid surge of violence in Muslim-majority country – The body of 75-year-old Mongsowe U Chak was discovered today at the isolated place of worship in the Naikkhangchhari village, about 211 miles southeast of Dhaka, where he lived alone. The past few months have seen a huge rise in the number of violent attacks in Bangladesh, where the majority of the population is Muslim. – Express

Two gay rights activists hacked to death in Bangladesh; Al-Qaeda affiliate claims responsibility for attack – Two people, including the editor of a magazine for the transgender community, have been hacked to death in the capital of Bangladesh. A third person, a security guard at the apartment building where the killings took place, was seriously wounded in Monday’s attack in Dhaka, in which six attackers murdered Xulhaz Mannan and Mahbub Tonoy. Mannan was the editor of Rupban, the only LGBT magazine in the country. – Aljazeera

Land Seizures 

Until 2012, Hindu living in Bangladesh were subjected to discriminatory land practices and seizures of property under what was known as a series of “Enemy Property” and “Vested Property” acts. Under these discriminatory acts, more than 1 million Hindu households and millions of acres of Hindu owned lands were seized. While the Bangladesh government has since promulgated acts (2012 Vested Property Return Act) to return lands or compensate Hindu families, these measures have not been fully implemented and Hindu lands continue to be seized illegally by Islamist groups. – Hindu American Foundation Report

Political Violence 

After the election of the Bangladesh Nation Party (BNP) in 2001, partly leaders and lawmakers instigated a 150 day pogrom against the Hindu minority which lead to 500,000 Hindus fleeing Bangladesh to take refuge in India, with more than 1000 Hindu women either being raped or gang-raped. Form 2013 to 2014, more than 1,500 Hindu temples were demolished, 302 minorities were killed, 5,050 minorities families were displaced from their homes, more than 3,000 Hindu homes were attacked, 585 shops were either attacked or looted, and nearly 300 rapes of minority women were reported. Islamist groups in Bangladesh have also begun creating “hit lists” against secular bloggers, many of whom have been killed. – Hindu American Foundation Report

Home Grown Terrorism 

Despite the influx of ISIS and accompanied violence into Bangladesh, the nation has also had a long tradition of its own homegrown Islamic terrorist outfits such as the Jamaat-e-Islami (JEL).  JEL seeks to create a “Taliban style” regime in Bangladesh and garners recruits and funds through its control of Islamic schools (madrassas) and its student wing, the Islami Chhatra Shibir (ICS).  Both JEL and ICS have been accused of interacting with and supporting designated terrorist groups such as the Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami Bangladesh (HuJI-B), the Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) and Al-Queda. In 2015, the JEL-ICS brought riots to the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka, setting off some 20 bombs; an ICS crude bomb factory was discovered in the same year. Despite these activities, the Bangladesh government has not designated JEL or ICS as terrorist organization and has been unable or unwilling to curtail their activities. – Hindu American Foundation Report

Congress Petition 

In the United States, Hindu congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard has started a video and petition campaign to help fight the rise of violent Jihad within the Islamic State of Bangladesh. Her video and petition highlights the ongoing religious cleansing of Hindus from Bangladesh, the decimation of the Hindu population from 18% in 1971 to less than 10% today, expulsions and land grabs, the rape and forced conversions of young Hindu women, and the ongoing attacks on Hindu places of worship. Please support Tulsi’s campaign to end Islamist violence in Bangladesh.


Aloha and Namaste. While we here in the United States may sometimes take our freedoms for granted, Hindus and other religious minorities in Bangladesh are living in perpetual terror. Forced conversions to Islam, rapes and abductions, extortions and land grabbing and forced expulsion, desecration and destruction of places of worship, are just a few of the types of violence that are currently being unleashed. The population of Hindus in Bangladesh has dwindled from 18% in 1971 to a meager 9.7% today. Accounting for the overall population growth during this time this is a net loss of about 53 million Hindus from Bangladesh. That’s close to the total population of a dozen European Union countries or that of more than fifteen U.S. States that has simply vanished from a tiny country about the size of Greece or the State of New York.

Compounding the problem is the rapid rise of violent jihadists in Bangladesh. We’ve seen in the news recently word of terrorist attacks, machete attacks and beheadings of Hindu priests, secularists, bloggers, and intellectuals. Yet there has been no real action taken by the Bangladesh government to quell this festering crisis.

We must stand together with the people of Bangladesh. Please sign this petition as we call on the Bangladesh government to take urgent action against the horrific oppression and terror that plagues religious minorities in Bangladesh every day.



[1] http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/part1.html

[2] Article 41(1)–41(2) of Part III:Chapter 1: The President of the Constitution of Pakistan

[3] http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/preamble.html

[4] http://tribune.com.pk/story/472486/in-di-khan-hindus-forced-to-bury-their-dead/

[5] http://www.dawn.com/news/672000/pakistan-schools-teach-hindu-hatred

[6] http://www.dawn.com/news/1098452

[7] http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/blog/can-pakistan-declare-ahmadis-non-muslim/

[8] http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/27/pakistan-court-sentences-christian-man-death-blasphemy

[9] http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12621225

[10] http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2014/08/forced-conversions-torment-pakistan-hindus-201481795524630505.html


[12] http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/100-year-old-temple-demolished-in-pakistan-angry-hindus-asks-govt-to-arrange-tickets-to-india/1/235776.html

[13] http://www.reuters.com/article/us-pakistan-hindus-grave-idUSBRE9970EF20131008